SIM – A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). It is also possible to store contacts on many SIM cards. SIM cards are always used on GSM phones; for CDMA phones, they are only needed for newer LTE-capable handsets. SIM cards can also be used in satellite phones.
SIM – A subscriber identity module is a removable smart card for mobile phones. SIM cards store the required information to identify the mobile device. It also contains data required for voice encryption to make listening in on calls almost impossible (except when the wireless carrier itself is doing the eavesdropping). In this way the customer ID (and personal number) is tied to the SIM card and not to a certain mobile phone. This allows for a seamless interchange of the same SIM card between different GSM mobile phones. SIM cards also serve as storage for SMS messages and the user’s contacts. Current SIM cards can store up to 250 name/number pairs and up to 50 SMS text messages.
The SIM circuit is part of the function of a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) physical smart card, which is usually made of PVC with embedded contacts and semiconductors. “SIM cards” are designed to be transferable between different mobile devices. The first UICC smart cards were the size of credit and bank cards; the development of physically smaller mobile devices has prompted the development of smaller SIM cards, where the size of the plastic carrier is reduced while keeping electrical contacts the same.
A SIM card contains its unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number, security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use, and a personal unblocking code (PUK) for PIN unlocking.
International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)
SIM cards are identified on their individual operator networks by a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Mobile network operators connect mobile phone calls and communicate with their market SIM cards using their IMSIs. The format is :
- The first three digits represent the Mobile Country Code (MCC).
- The next two or three digits represent the Mobile Network Code (MNC). Three-digit MNC codes are allowed by E.212 but are mainly used in the United States and Canada.
- The next digits represent the Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN). Normally there will be 10 digits but would be fewer in the case of a 3-digit MNC or if national regulations indicate that the total length of the IMSI should be less than 15 digits.
- Digits are different from country to country.
Location area identity
The SIM stores network state information, which is received from the Location Area Identity (LAI). Operator networks are divided into Location Areas, each having a unique LAI number. When the device changes locations, it stores the new LAI to the SIM and sends it back to the operator network with its new location. If the device is power cycled, it will take data off the SIM, and search for the prior LAI.
Formats SIM CARD
SIM cards have been made smaller over the years; functionality is independent of format. Full-size SIMs were followed by mini-SIMs, micro-SIMs, and nano-SIMs. SIMs are also made to be embedded in devices.
Full-size SIM – The full-size SIM (or 1FF, 1st form factor) was the first form factor to appear. It has the size of a credit card (85.60 mm × 53.98 mm × 0.76 mm).
Mini-SIM – The mini-SIM (or 2FF) card has the same contact arrangement as the full-size SIM card and is normally supplied within a full-size card carrier, attached by a number of linking pieces. This arrangement (defined in ISO/IEC 7810 as ID-1/000) allows such a card to be used in a device requiring a full-size card, or in a device requiring a mini-SIM card after breaking the linking pieces. Note that some suppliers, such as AT&T, refer to this form factor as a Standard SIM.
Micro-SIM – The micro-SIM (or 3FF) card has the same thickness and contact arrangements, but reduced length and width as shown in the table above.
The micro-SIM was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) along with SCP, 3GPP (UTRAN/GERAN), 3GPP2 (CDMA2000), ARIB, GSM Association (GSMA SCaG and GSMNA), GlobalPlatform, Liberty Alliance, and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for the purpose of fitting into devices too small for a mini-SIM card.
The form factor was mentioned in the December 1998 3GPP SMG9 UMTS Working Party, which is the standards-setting body for GSM SIM cards, and the form factor was agreed upon in late 2003.
The micro-SIM was designed for backward compatibility. The major issue for backward compatibility was the contact area of the chip. Retaining the same contact area allows the micro-SIM to be compatible with the prior, larger SIM readers through the use of plastic cutout surrounds. The SIM was also designed to run at the same speed (5 MHz) as the prior version. The same size and positions of pins resulted in numerous “How-to” tutorials and YouTube video with detailed instructions how to cut a mini-SIM card to micro-SIM size with a sharp knife or scissors.
The chairman of EP SCP, Dr. Klaus Vedder, said
“With this decision, we can see that ETSI has responded to a market need from ETSI customers, but additionally there is a strong desire not to invalidate, overnight, the existing interface, nor reduce the performance of the cards. EP SCP expect to finalise the technical realisation for the third form factor at the next SCP plenary meeting, scheduled for February 2004.”
Micro-sim cards were introduced by various mobile service providers for the launch of the original iPad, and later for smartphones, from April 2010. The iPhone 4 was the first smartphone to use a micro-SIM card in June 2010. Later the Samsung Galaxy S3/S4, various Nokia Lumia handsets, the Nokia N9, the Nexus 5 and the Sony Xperia followed.
Nano-SIM – The nano-SIM (or 4FF) card was introduced on 11 October 2012, when mobile service providers began selling it in various countries. The nano-SIM measures 12.3 × 8.8 × 0.67 mm and reduces the previous format to the contact area while maintaining the existing contact arrangements. A small rim of isolating material is left around the contact area to avoid short circuits with the socket. The 0.67 mm thickness of the nano-SIM is about 12% less than the 0.76 mm of its predecessor. 4FF can be put into adapters for use with devices taking 2FF or 3FF SIMs; many phone companies however do not recommend using these adapters. The iPhone 5, released in September 2012, was the first device to use a nano-SIM card followed by other handsets including the Nexus 6 and Samsung Galaxy Alpha.
SIM and carriers – The SIM card introduced a new and significant business opportunity for MVNOs — mobile virtual network operators — who lease capacity from one of the network operators rather than owning or operating a cellular telecoms network, and only provide a SIM card to their customers. MVNOs first appeared in Denmark, Hong Kong, Finland and the UK. Today they exist in over 50 countries, including most of Europe, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and parts of Asia, and account for approximately 10% of all mobile phone subscribers around the world.
On some networks, the mobile phone is locked to its carrier SIM card, meaning that the phone only works with SIM cards from the specific carrier. This is more common in markets where mobile phones are heavily subsidised by the carriers, and the business model depends on the customer staying with the service provider for a minimum term (typically 12, 18 or 24 months). SIM cards that are issued by providers with an associated contract are called SIM only deals. Common examples are the GSM networks in the United States, Canada, Australia, the UK and Poland. Many businesses offer the ability to remove the SIM lock from a phone, effectively making it possible to then use the phone on any network by inserting a different SIM card. Mostly, GSM and 3G mobile handsets can easily be unlocked and used on any suitable network with any SIM card.
In countries where the phones are not subsidised, e.g., India, Israel and Belgium, all phones are unlocked. Where the phone is not locked to its SIM card, the users can easily switch networks by simply replacing the SIM card of one network with that of another while using only one phone. This is typical, for example, among users who may want to optimise their carrier’s traffic by different tariffs to different friends on different networks, or when traveling internationally.
Multiple-SIM devices – Devices with two SIM slots are known as dual SIMs. Dual-SIM mobile phones usually come with two slots for SIMs, one behind the battery and another on the side of the phone, though in some devices both slots can be found on the battery tray, or on the side of the phone if the device does not have a removable battery. In the Western world dual-SIM devices are less common, and even less so with multiple-SIM phones, but are commonplace in developing markets such as in Africa, East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia, where billing rates and variable network coverage make it desirable for consumers to use multiple SIMs from competing networks.
source : en.wikipedia